Climate and Culture
Regarding the landscape, the climate and the culture Eritrea can be described as a country of fully
Located in the southwestern coast of the Red Sea in the northeast of Africa, Eritrea adjoins in the north
and west Sudan and in the south Djibouti and Ethiopia.
The biggest city of the state, Asmara, is also the capital city of Eritrea.
The main ports are Massawa and Asseb.
It is possible to experience three different climatIC zones in Eritrea within two hours – The
three main geographical zones are: The east situated and savanna-like coast, the central highlands and
the lowlands in the west.
The coastland and the lowlands are dry predominantly and have some rain in the wintertime.
During the rainy summertime of the highlands, the lowlands receives in addition water due to mainly
The moderate and hilly inland region is populated strongly. Here is also the greatest share of the light
industry of Eritrea.
Te coastline houses more than 350 islands of which most are located (to the east of Massawa) in the
Dahlak archipelago. With a size of 643 km² and a population approxamateley of 1500 people is Dahlak
Kebir the greatest among them.
The only river of the country whih is leadin water over the whole year is the Setit. However, in the
summer rainy season are still many river streaming from the Highlands to the Red Sea and to
Sudan.The rivers Gash, Barka and Anseba irigate extensive agricultural areas during the rains.
The Eritrean mainland extends over 1100km along the coastline of the Red Sea.
The central highland with its moderate climate is over the sea-level on a height of over 2000m, while the
southeastern Danakil lowland is one of the lowest arid regions of the earth. The “green belt” of the
country lies over the northeast of the capital whereas the fertile areas in the lowlands of Barak- and
Gashlevel are in the west.
The highest temperatur in the coastal regions are into 25°C to 40-45°C between June and August.
It is very rare that the temperature falls down under 18° although the sea breezes represent recovery
especially on the islands.
The rains along the coast on the Red Sea onthe northbound takes place between Decembre and
February, but along the southcoast rain is very scarce.
In the centre of the highlands the highest temperature appear in May and reach approximateley 30°C.
Nevertheless, the temperature can drop up to the freezing point in the night during the winter season in
December and January.
The short season of rain is between April and May and the main season is at the end of June by the
beginning of September. Nevertheless the sun shines mostly every day.
The hottest time in the western lowlands is between April and June with 40°. December is the coldest.