If there is ever a country that always yearns to publicize to the world, without being asked, the conditions of human rights; it is the United States. In its annual report on human rights, the US speculates what China or Russia did or what Venezuela or Eritrea didn’t and so on. But it never utters a single word about itself, or the rights of its people, or the rights of the people in Somalia, Yemen, Iraq, and Afghanistan. If its disclosure had been necessary, or permitted to be exact, the condition of human rights would have been something like the following.
We apologize for sticking to the head topics only for now, as details will be treated in future publications.
- “… all Men are created equal; that they are endowed by their creator with inherent and certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness…” This quote, called an “immortal declaration” and considered a phrase with the most grand “continuing importance”, belongs to Thomas Jefferson, who ironically, along with his wife, possessed hundreds of slaves. Until his death in 1826, Jefferson refused to free Sally Hemings, whose four children he had fathered, and her two children. They were only set free by his daughter from his first wife eight years later. Moreover, he had refused to recognize Haiti as a nation solely because it was founded by slaves.
- Until 1865, the US had slaves that could be sold, exchanged and slaughtered, just like livestock. When congress passed the 1865 Slave Abolition bill, the justification given was not because “men were all equal” or “human rights were violated” but instead biblical arguments were raised and keeping slaves was said to be not compliant with what Christian faith demanded. According to that legal justification, it was therefore possible for anyone who didn’t fear God to keep enslaving people.
- Until 1920, American women had no right to vote. It was only with the 19th Amendment to the constitution that women were finally granted the right to vote. Each state was given the power to ratify the amendment whenever it pleased.
- Black Americans were not allowed to get on the same bus as whites. Later, the law also dictated that the blacks get up for the whites whenever there were no more seats. It was then that the Montgomery Bus Boycott movement came, triggered by the incident where Rosa Parks, a black woman, was arrested for refusing to give up her seat to a white man. The protests that ensued persisted from December 01, 1955 up to December 20, 1956, its victory putting an end to the policy of bus segregation and allowing blacks and whites to travel together. Would reminding the US, now supposedly engaged in Human Right advocacy, with such a story cause her to be conscious of these actions perpetrated less than 60 years ago?
- The US Supreme Court has to this day banned any type of worship in public schools, and by way of its Lemon test the court dictates requirements for legislation concerning religion.
- Although the US maintains a Speech Freedom Act passed in 1941, it employs 300,000 fulltime workers with the sole task of monitoring and intercepting telephone and internet communications. A clear example of this is the fact that 12,300 citizens who exercised their right to free speech were detained last year for being threats to National Security.
- A recent occurrence that proved the right to ‘Freedom of Assembly’ is not in fact observed in practice is the Occupy Wall Street movement that started in 2011, where police violence and brutality was witnessed in clearing the protests and eliminating the principal activists.
- The right to “freedom to travel” was later violated by the Passport Act of 1926, which gave the US State Department the power to rebuke or totally refuse the issuance of passports to its citizens. According to this Act, no American citizen is permitted to travel to Cuba. Moreover, there are 8,000 citizens included in a “no-fly list”; these people don’t know why they are on the list and haven’t been told when they asked.
- According to the “Smith Act,” any group or organization suspected of harboring thoughts advocating the violent overthrow of the government, is deprived of its right to assemble and becomes liable to criminal penalties.
- According to its “Martial Law 64,” the US has the right to deport with or without evidence any individual it suspects as being a threat to its national security.
- The US enacted a law that permitted it to deport any citizen of any rival country during a state of war or terrorism. Accordingly, it had deported 70,000 Japanese citizens, after confiscating their property. In doing so, it might have unknowingly imparted a lesson on its subservient regimes.
- According to its “Alien and Sedition Acts,” anyone who, at a time of war, made false claims against the government or spoke maliciously on the nation’s war activities, that person would be liable to high criminal penalties.
- Although the fourth Amendment of the US Constitution prohibits unwarranted searches and confiscations, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has total liberty to search and confiscate any public or private property.
- In line with its “Chinese Exclusion Act,” enacted because Chinese immigrants supposedly created competition for the Americans on the job market to the extent of posing a threat to the National Security, there are still laws prohibiting Chinese citizens from entering the US.
- The Nationwide Suspicious Activity Reporting (SAR) Initiative (NSI) gives the federal government or any individual the responsibility to put any suspicious person under surveillance, including telephone and email interception. At present, it is estimated that there are 21 million individuals under constant surveillance.
- The US is the only G8 member that carries the death penalty. In past years, 1,077 people were executed in the electric chair. Most of these were blacks, some were executed by mistake and others due to name misplacement. • According to 2011 reports, the US ranks the first in the world for imprisoning people. The problem lies not only in the imprisonment, but also in the inhuman tortures inside prisons. Examples of mistreatment include leaving prisoners naked and exposed in extreme cold weather conditions; use of rubber bullets on human targets; pepper spraying on eyes of detainees; exposing detainees to deafening sounds; soldiers cutting fingers off their victims in places like Afghanistan and sending them as gifts for their girlfriends back home…
- 21% of inmates, whether males or females, are essentially raped or sexually abused by those guarding them. The United States is the only country in the world allowing sentencing of young adolescents (13 year-olds) to life imprisonment. In 2011, 98% of the police brutality complaints were rejected by the Department of Internal Affairs.
- Based on the ample and plenary authority that the US Congress gave the President in the wake of the 2001 terrorist acts, prisoners of war were categorized as “unlawful combatants,” an excuse used by the US to bypass the codes of Geneva Conventions. Accordingly, prisoners in Abu Ghraib and Guantanamo were coerced by nudity humiliations, rape (men to women, women to men, and mass rapes), release or threat of release to attack dogs, chemical spraying, breaking phosphoric lights on their bodies, underwater immersion in barrels, and waterboarding.
- What is more saddening • however is the fact that those soldiers performing these acts are considered as heroes by the Department of Defense. When former Secretary of Defense, Donald Rumsfeld, heard about prisoners being forced to remain standing in one position for 24 hours with their faces covered with cloth, he had joked saying “Even I stand for 8-10 hours a day.” While it’s true that he usually worked standing in his office, it was his preference and with all his comforts.
- The ever growing frustration of US soldiers is not unjustified. Being forced to go and commit atrocities in lands not theirs, these soldiers are the primary victims of their administration’s adventurous policies. 20% of US soldiers suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder and 50 soldiers commit suicides every month.
- Under the 1903 Cuban- American Treaty, the United States assumed territorial control of Guantánamo Bay, an island it chose for conducting its tortures. People have been shocked of the tortures carried out in the island. Some have even referred to it as “the symbol of American cruelty and its supremacy above the law.” Republican governor, Mike Huckabee, has however a different opinion: “Guantanamo had gained notoriety only with the advent of terrorist acts; other than that, the detainees there are treated better than the prisoners in mainland America.” The details from this onwards are left to history.
- When tortures and harsh • interrogation techniques cannot be easily carried out in Guantanamo, prisoners are transferred, under a “rendition program,” to other countries such as Ethiopia (Ghedo, Debrezeyt), Egypt, Jordan, and Morocco, where the tortures can go unnoticed.
- The U.S. has not ratified the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC). It instead uses the ICC to hunt down Africans with accusations of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes. The Court serves as a cover up for the US to pick on a leader it wanted to be punished. When President Laurent Gbagbo refused to sign the agreement conceding 90% of oil revenues to France, it is to be recalled that he was threatened with the ICC.
- When the UN demanded that the US sign the Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC), the Washington Administration passed the American Service Members’ Protection Act (ASPA), granting immunity to United States military personnel and other elected and appointed officials of the United States government against criminal prosecution in any country. The US congress also authorized the Department of Defense to use “all means necessary and appropriate to bring about the release of any US or allied personnel being detained or imprisoned by, on behalf of, or at the request of the International Criminal Court”.
- The US has so far declined to sign the following treaties:
- Protocol of Civil and Political Rights
- Protocol of Convention Against Torture
- Protocol of the Rights of All Immigrants.
- The issue of immigrants in the US is an issue where politicians seek political advantage. The fact that President Obama signed, with great media fanfare, on June 16, 2012, a new policy allowing immigrants under 30 years of age to stay in the country is an example of political choices. The green cards for the 800,000 largely Hispanic immigrants, were made available in a move to win the votes of the 3.2 million others influenced by them. Consequently, Hispanic voters favored Mr. Obama over Mr. Romney by 67 percent to 23 percent.
? US Self-Assessment –World’s Assessment of the US
- In 2011, the US released a • so-called comprehensive Country Report on Human Rights. In the report, the country has named itself, followed by 29 other countries, “the most free country in the world” in all standards of Human Rights.
- If the US only knew what the world really thinks of it!
- An institute called Privacy International had said: if exam grading systems were to be applied for American Human Rights standards, the US would get 30 out of 100.
- “Reporters without Borders,” the institution established by the American intelligence agencies and funded by the National Endowment for Democracy, has itself ranked its sponsor country at 56 in a list of countries with gross human rights violations.
- Dearest readers, in coming publications we will delve into details and present you with facts about the rights of American citizens with respect to fields of education.
Citizens’ Right to Education
Access to equitable and efficient social services for every citizen tops the list of fundamental human rights. Where the need arises to objectively assess the status of human rights in any given nation, it ought to be weighed against access to education amongst other social services. And hence, let’s have a look at the current status of education in the United States.
Education in the US
Since assessment on the United States merely amounts to the double standards, double duties, double rights, double election and double fate of the people, analysis concerning the objectivity of the data in the country, which has espoused an undeclared apartheid, is dictated thus. Whereas most of the schools in the United States do not permit the intake of black students, 90 percent of them join schools in which non white people of color would learn. Pursuant to the educational apartheid in the country, all-white parochial schools, according to the Civil Rights Act by the Supreme Court (1991), assume the right to prohibit black students’ transportation services with school buses.
Access to education in the United States is basically booked for the well-to-do. It has been and continues to remain beyond doubt that U.S. educational system is reserved for the white and affluent students, who can pay at prestigious colleges and universities an approximate of half a million dollars for a degree program. This accomplished fact as such is tantamount to gross breech of the fundamental human rights. Every Year, there are 1.2 million dropouts in the United States. With 6,000 drop out rate per diem, 44 percent of these dropouts remain unemployed, and thus, turn a hand in juvenile delinquency. It is for the same reason that drop outs constitute 65 percent of the population behind bars, of which 95 percent are yet from the black community.
In the 1930s, the num¬ber of public schools in the United States was estimated 248,000. Now, the number of public schools has drastically dwindled to 99,000. While the U.S. Administration earmarks $26,000 USD for every inmate, only $9,644 USD is allocated for every student by this same Administration. As the educational system in the United States has continuously been advancing in reverse since World War II, current educational status and quality of stu¬dents in the country is ranked 77th in the world. In the 1930s, however, the United States was 35 years ahead of all nations in both education and civilization. In a recent study conducted on students—including American students from thirty industrialized nations, the outcome placed those students from the U.S. 25th, merely managing to outrank four nations. Even on a global scale, a year 8 American student only qualifies for sixth grader in terms of global intelligence quotient and pedagogical analysis.
According to a research con¬ducted in 2012, 68 percent American students can-not read English fluently and apprehend the precise essence. Despite the fact that the country charges every student to the tune of $240,000 USD tuition for a degree program, the Administration in Washington allocated in 2011 4.7 percent —$739.3 billion USD of its GNP for military purposes. This spending amount to 45.7 percent of the military expenditure by the entire world combined. The revenue being collected from the general public, adult education as well as from the sweat of workers’ brows is geared in flagrant violation of human rights towards mass killings of women and children in Afghanistan, Iraq, Pakistan, Somalia, Myanmar and so forth.
The cost of a single precision bomb is equal to the tuition fee a student pays to a four-year degree program. Black students, who graduate in great distinction from respective col¬leges or universities, are virtually doomed to racial segregation later in life. The salary of a Ph.D. holder white employee is 28.5 times greater than another black with the same qualification. Why? No definite answer whatsoever is desired. Unemployment upon completion of educational pursuit is an everyday phenomenon. In line with the aforementioned double standards, the white constitute only 16.2 percent of the latest total unemployment rate; the remaining more than 83 percent are people of color mostly the black and Asians. As a result, 90.6 percent of the indigence stricken Americans are people of color, and the remaining 9.4 percent are white.
An article analyzing the impact of poor education in the economics of the United States ascribes the country’s recent economic meltdown to the in-creasingly deteriorating educational system. In a different article entitled “The Biggest Issue”, David Brooks not only mentions the fact that amateur American youths have over¬whelmingly taken control of every employment opportunity, but he also underscores that the major problem is attributed to the Government’s mishandling, poor curriculum and incom¬petence of teachers, as well as the constant falling of American culture and values into decay, which has already given way to the corrosion of foster care and parental role. Another expert of educational systems wrote that it is now by no means demanding to signal the future of a five-year old American child. Stating the nature of present day parental role, he surmised that it is mere simplicity to anticipate education loving and industrious posterity as American parents are at home with indulging their children in excessive influences in a manner that disapproves the value of education.
Such is human rights, which deprives citizens’ equal opportunity to education and complicates the growth of national economy and civilization, as well as that which accuses other states of trumped-up charges on grounds of human rights. All allegations from enemy quarters with the said track record are but repudiated ethically, legally and logically. Forthcoming article shall cast light on the violation of American citizens’ rights vis-à-vis gender disparity and racial segregation.
Human Rights Violation Through Gender Inequality and Racial Discrimination
When talking about the right to equality and justice, having already seen the situation of the US within the context of education, this case is not any different. When it comes to dignity, rights or justice one doesn’t necessarily have to see them in terms of different standards, because the US’ history of human rights is not that blurred. In fact, its record has been marred by differences between black and white, rich and poor, citizen and alien, religious affiliations and others.
In the course of time, America has been seen drafting policies that contradicted with the right to equality, but not once has it attempted to nullify them. To mention a few:
The Alien and Enemies Sedition Act 1798, authorizing the apprehension and deportation of resident aliens if their home countries were at war with the United States, remains intact today.
The Espionage Sedition Act 1917, 1918, criminalized any support to U.S. enemies during wartime and different forms of speech, including “any disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language about the form of government of the United States.
Operation Garden Plot 1798 authorizes the military and law enforcement forces to crush down any major civil disturbances that pose a threat to the government.
Executive Order 12656 1988: consenting to federal reconnaissance over its citizens and those of other countries, including limiting their movements.
Executive Order 9066, 12148 1942 & 1979: authorizing the detention, deportation and killing… These and other laws, used as pretexts for committing all sorts of human rights violations, are abundant.
The US has so far declined to sign the following treaties: Protocol of Civil and Political Rights, Protocol of Convention against Torture, Protocol of the Rights of All Immigrants, and other treaties opposing the production of unconventional weapons.
All these attest to the country’s way of dealing with human rights.
Renowned black American activist, Martin Luther King, delivered his “I Have a Dream” speech over 40 years ago, weeping of the atrocities committed against black Americans. But that dream has not yet come true for the black Americans. They know the reason very well: US administrations lack the will, and knowledge, to realize that dream.
Racial discrimination persists to this day in the same manner as that during the slavery times. The symbol of justice in American courtrooms depicts a blindfolds and scales bearing arms: this was done to symbolize the delivery of justice equally to all rich and poor, black and white, regardless of gender or religious affiliation. But the justice given to blacks and whites today is different, with the blacks receiving two or three times more punishments than the whites.
The US, known as the “Prison Island,” has about 37 million inmates. Although it’s wise to refer to additional sources, we concluded that the Us’ own reports are enough so we are presenting the facts as
they are. Blacks make up 13% of the total American population, 42% of those in prison, and 53% of those in jail for possession of narcotics and illegal drugs.
The problem lies not only in the imprisonment, but also in the inhuman tortures inside prisons. Examples of mistreatment include leaving prisoners naked and exposed in extreme conditions; use of prisoners as human targets; depriving them food; solitary confinement; exposing detainees to deafening sounds… the list goes on.
21% of inmates, whether males or females, are essentially raped or sexually abused by those guarding them. The United States is the only country in the world allowing sentencing of young adolescents (13 year-olds) to life imprisonment. In contrast to the general belief that America is a country where citizens can freely voice criticism about public offices, in 2011 only, 98% of the police brutality complaints were rejected by the Department of Internal Affairs.
In its May 2010 publication, the New York Times disclosed that the number of blacks held up by suspicion and interrogated by police in the streets was nine times more that than of whites.
According to a study conducted in 2003, the number of Americans suffering from hunger and unemployment is on the rise. 5.2% of whites are unemployed compared to twice that number (10.4 %) of unemployed black Americans. Moreover, 24.2% of black Americans live in destitute poverty while another 20.2% don’t have medical insurance.
When comparing the annual income of a white middle class family with that of Black Americans, the latter is 40% lower. Over 70% of the high level job positions are held by whites, while the black and their likes usually have low-income and very demanding (physically) jobs. About 87% of job opportunities in America don’t apply to blacks.
At jobs where both blacks and whites have the same level of education, capacity and physical aptitude, the black’s daily wage is 6 dollars lower than that of his fellow white colleague.
The policy of bus segregation among blacks and whites that was said to have ended following the Montgomery Bus Boycott movement (1955 -1956), has taken another dimension now 60 years later. In places densely populated by blacks, bus fares increase with decrease in number of buses and declining services; while in the whites’ areas, the fares are cheaper and the services better. This is in itself a good example of how separated the blacks and whites are even in terms of their residential neighborhoods.
Without having to go back to old examples, when Hurricane Katrina hit New Orleans, the US Administration not only did it alienate the over 134,000 mostly black victims, but didn’t even bother to provide assistance of any kind.
People might hear American women have equal rights as their male counterparts, but in reality, the opposite is true. For every man and woman with the same age, level of education and physical fitness, the women don’t get equal job opportunities. For every dollar pay, men get 77 cents as opposed to the 33 cents women get. This means women’s salary declines annually by 10,784 USD from that of men.
It’s not easy to come up with names for some of the discriminatory laws drafted by the US administration. Women are for instance made to pay “Gender Tax,” which demands a 22.6% of their daily income. When women appealed for the revoking of the law that promoted such differences, and called for equal pay, the fact that senate rejected their appeal is an indication of the country’s stance on gender equality.
Making up 20% of the army, women fall victim to 20,000 rape cases every year.
These images are only a drop from the ocean of the human rights violations through gender inequality and racial discrimination.
America has often the habit of disclosing and disseminating global human rights reports to the world without being invited or requested to do so. In such a report (human rights report), the country recounts what may happen in China, what Russia does, what is lacking in Venezuela, what has been done in Iran, what takes place in Eritrea and the like. However, the United States reports nothing about the human rights situation in its own jurisdiction and what happens in terms of human rights as a result of its intervention in such countries as Somalia, Yemen, Iraq, Afghanistan and others. If America, as part of its human rights reports, were willing or to be exact if it were possible, to have the human rights situations in such cases recounted, much more complicated human rights problems would be reported or disclosed.
One of the major excuses that are used as a pretext for blaming other countries is the issue of democracy. But the type of democracy that is used by America as a means to defame others is not the standard democracy we know. The type of democracy that is advocated or preached in this case is significantly colored by its own calculations and standards. Consequently, its results do not stabilize the world – rather they destabilize many countries in the world. If try to analyze retrospectively about what has happened in history in relation to those different leaders who faced coups in the world while they were democratically elected and publicly legitimate ones , the hands of the American government had been involved in the removal of such leaders in different countries. It has been well documented in his¬tory that behind the 40 coups and the assassination of different leaders that took place in Asian, African and Latin American countries from mid 1950s to mid 1980s was the American administration.
During his administration Truman said, “We had a good time before we started to feel the consequences or side-effects associated with democracy.” When compared to what Truman said, the American administration has formed a task force named a Trilateral Commission that is entrusted with ‘moderating democracy’ as the administration has concluded that democracy is hindering the way they run the state apparatus.
As it has been clearly stated in a book authored by Noam Chomsky, which is entitled ‘Neces-sary Illusion’, the aforesaid task force concluded and accordingly recommended that the American public has to be conditioned to the extent that the people have to be unconcerned about democracy as it was the case in their traditional setting and their apathy in this case has to be cultivated by the government. It means that the habits associated with democratic practices have to be undone. They have to be used to being loyal to the state and their logical orientations associated with political issues should be discouraged. As part of its recommendation, the commission asserted that it is through this mechanism that the America can moderate the problems linked with democracy or democratic stupidity. But the case (mission) was also believed to be applicable elsewhere too.
A famous ex-director of CIA, Brzezinski, was the person who formed Al-Qaeda with the intention of collapsing Russia. At the end of the 1970s when he was asked, “Don’t you fear that those fundamentalists that are being encouraged today may destabilize the world tomorrow?”
The senior American official said, “What threatens America more, the Russian Kingdom or the few crazy Islamic fundamentalists?” The details of the fact that the single most important factor that is considered while the country’s policies and strategies are formulated is America’s self-interest have been clearly described in Iqbal Ahmed’s book entitled ‘Clash of Civilization’. The fact that the narrow perspective of America and the fuel accordingly ignited by America may backfire has been substantiated with supportive evidence in Fawaz Gerges’s book entitled “Why Jihad Went Global”. The book contains details about the strategy of accommodating short-term enemies for materializing long term goals.
The worst thing is that unnecessarily the lives of many innocent citizens are being claimed to put out the terrorism fuel that was ignited by America. After the September 11 attack, which was caused by the terrorists created by America itself, many innocent people have been tortured a lot as a result of its blind perspective that ‘everything in the forest is a predator.’ Murat Kurnaz’s book, entitled “Five Years of My Life- An Innocent Man in Guantanamo”, indicates that America has reversed the fact that everybody is considered innocent until he or she is proved to be a criminal and has tended to believe that ‘everybody is considered to be a criminal until he or she is proved to be an innocent one.’
The current practices in the American court system have started not to center their verdict on whether a person is guilty or innocent.
Today’s court decision in America is called exculpatory. Such a system attempts to prove some-body innocence. In such a case, it is expediently ‘sensible’ to torture people in jails until you prove that they are innocent. This means you exculpate people jailed in such a way when you prove that they are innocent in areas like Guantanamo.
‘Friendly Totalitarianism’ is a phrase that is part of the security strategy in America – its intention being to encourage totalitarian friends. To this effect, those who oppress their own people and who happen to be corrupt leaders using public resources for their own private gains must be supported as long as they as they help America to promote its national interest. In this case, there is no need to raise the issue of democracy. The rule of the game in this case is that as long as such leaders are instrumental for promoting the national interest of America, America is not concerned whether they are democratic or not.
The guiding principle of the American administration has institutionalized the removal of leaders (coups) and this can be easily confirmed by the following examples:-
* The United States of America engineered the coup that was led by Hussein Alziem in Syria. This coup happened in 1950 and it was the first coup in the Middle East.
* It was America that masterminded the coup that ousted President Mohammed A.Musaddiq in Iran in 1954. President Mohammed A.Musaddiq was a widely accepted legitimate leader. More importantly, he liberated the country from Great Britain’s British Petroleum that intended to exploit and monopolize the oil resources in Iran. John Foster Dulles’s brother was entrusted with the task of removing Mohammed A.Musaddiq.
John Foster Dulles was the person who worked his best to have Eritrea annexed to Ethiopia in the name of a futile federation.
Mark Curtis, in his book entitled ‘The Ambiguity of Power’ has incorporated descriptions of the above case. Mark Curtis has describe in detail in his book that CIA and MI-6 invested 4.5 million dollar for buying the support of military commanders, Mass media editors, NGOS and civil servants to materialize the ultimate goal of removing Moham¬med A.Musaddiq.
* In 1958, America prevented Ismail Al-Azhari not to be a lead¬er in his country and not to chair the parliament in Sudan. America proposed that he should hand over power to the army. In real terms, Ismail Al-Azhari had to be a prime minister on 17 November 1958.
However, Prime Minister and minister of defense Abdella Khelil handed over the power to rule to the army in answer to what Ethiopia’s Haileslassie suggested, as Haileslassie had strong ties with America and western countries.
* In 1961, Mobutu Sese Seko, ousted Prime Minster Patrice Émery Lumumba through a military coup. Patrice Lumumba was not only a more legitimate post-independence leader but he was also a widely accepted and famous leader of the liberation movement in Congo. The coup against Lu-mumba was organized by Ameri¬ca. President Eisenhower directly instructed that a toothbrush that was lubricated with a killer poi¬son to be manufactured so that it can be given to Lumumba in the form of a gift.
This reminds what the gift of the wicked ones really is. When Patrice Lumumba was killed cruelly, his teeth were removed and sent separately to Belgium. For details in connection with this issue one can refer to ‘The Chief of the station’ authored by Larry Devlin or a book summary translated to the Tigrigna language with the title ‘??? ???? ?? ??? ???? ? ????’.
* In 1965, America along with Britain conspired a coup in Ni¬geria against a democratically elected Prime Minister Abubeker Tafawa through the help of Gen¬eral Aguiyi Ironsi. During the coup Prime Minister Tafawa and Sorduna Ahmadu Bielon were as¬sassinated.
* In 1966, American engineered a coup against the famous Ghanaian national leader Kwame Nkrumah through the help of General Ankra.
Nkrumah was a considerably legitimate leader with massive popular support. Finally, he was sentenced by America to be jailed and he suffered a lot. As a consequence, he became critically ill and died there. The details of such a conspiracy can be accessed by referring to what Adam Curtis’s two programmes prepared with BBC with the title ‘Black Power Pandora Box’.
* In mid 1930s, America engi¬neered and logistically supported the second futile invasion against a popular and widely legitimate government of Ahmed Sekou Toure in Guinea-Conakry.
* In June 1966, America conspired to weaken and accordingly organized the coup that removed from office Jamal Abdul Nasir as he was becoming very influential.
* On 25 May 1965, the coup that was conducted by Colonel Jaafar Nimeiri was masterminded by America.
* In Latin America also the United States of America engineered through General Pinochet the coup that happened in Chile in 1973 and this coup resulted in the removal of a popular and widely legitimate president Salvador Allende. America also armed those who were involved in the coup. During the Coup president Allende was assassinated and many others were disappeared. The person who was responsible for this coup was Henry Kissinger who was the National Security advisor at that time.
* Besides, America pushed for coups to be organized against a popular and widely acceptable Turkish movement that was led by Professor Najmuddin Arbakan. An example of this is what happened in September 1980. This coup was led by General Kenan.
* In early 1990s, western countries that were led by America planned coups against a movement that was widely legitimate in Algeria. As a consequence of this, the country experienced a serious civil war that claimed the lives of hundreds of thousands of innocent people.
* America did its best to overthrow and corner the popularly elected Hamas movement in Pal-estine.
* By investing considerably in Venezuela’s companies and sometimes by trying to employ President Castro’s wife in CIA, America had the intention to assassinate and overthrow the lead-ers. ‘Pirates of the Caribbean’, a book authored by Tariq Ali has the details in relation to this issue.
* In 2003, based on the information provided by Ahmed Shele¬bi, a politician who is considered to be less dependable one, America waged a war against the Iraqi people. Aram Roston, in his book entitled ‘The Man who Pushed America for War’, has dealt with the details related to this case.
* It has been also well documented in historical records that all coups that were observed in Latin and Central America such as in Panama, Haiti, Philippines, Honduras and others are mainly engineered by America.
The coups of that are organized by America, unlike what many people think, were not started during the cold war. Rather they were started as the end of the 19th century.
* In 1903, there was a coup that was conducted for promoting the interest of American cor-porations.
* In 1909, there was a coup that was experienced by Nicaragua for the sake of an American bank, namely Brown Brothers.
* In 1914, there was a coup in Mexico that wan initiated to advance the interests of American Oil companies –‘TAMOPIKE’.
* In 1916, there were coups that happened to six Latin American countries for reasons associated with Wall Street.
* In 1923 there was an upheaval in China and that was caused as a consequence of promoting the interest of Standard Oil.
What is surprising is that the name of the American institution that was conducting the coups was ‘League against war and Fascism’. This institution used to do the reverse of what has been indicated by its name.
This story has been deliberately removed from history books in America. However, America’s wicked deeds have been exposed by Clayton Cramer’s book which is entitled ‘The Histories that the Government of America does not want you to Know.’ The legacies of a bad time hurt you more than the bad time itself. In the fall of 1934, the spokesman of the ‘The League against war and Fascism’, Darlington Butter was asked by Wall Street rich men who were led by Grayson Murphy to topple an American president Roosevelt with the help of 500,000 armed forces. In return, Darlington Butter was told that he would earn some amount of money for carrying out the assignment. This coup history has been intentionally concealed from the citizenry as America asserts its administrations seize power not by bullets but by ballots.
In sum, America does not tolerate those popularly legitimate leaders, particularly the ones who are courageous enough to oppose its policies of domination and who are committed for pro¬moting not the interest of America but the interests of their own people.
As a result it tries to ensure its ambition to have a lion’s share of world resources in the name of democracy. In connection to this, America has been engaged in defaming those widely legitimate leaders with the intention of replacing them with corrupt and less legitimate ones but happen to be servile and policy instruments for promoting the self-defined national interest of America.
Instead of being engaged in removing legitimate leaders in the name of democracy, it would be much better for America to be more concerned about purifying its own sins.